```//-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
///
/// \file       scene.h
/// \author     Cem Yuksel (www.cemyuksel.com)
/// \version    8.1
/// \date       November 22, 2017
///
/// \brief Example source for CS 6620 - University of Utah.
///
//-------------------------------------------------------------------------------

#ifndef _SCENE_H_INCLUDED_
#define _SCENE_H_INCLUDED_

//-------------------------------------------------------------------------------

#define TEXTURE_SAMPLE_COUNT 32

//-------------------------------------------------------------------------------

#include <string.h>
#define _USE_MATH_DEFINES
#include <math.h>

#include <vector>
#include <atomic>

#include "lodepng.h"

#include "cyPoint.h"
typedef cyPoint2f Point2;
typedef cyPoint3f Point3;
typedef cyPoint4f Point4;

#include "cyMatrix.h"
typedef cyMatrix3f Matrix3;

#include "cyColor.h"
typedef cyColor Color;
typedef cyColorA ColorA;
typedef cyColor24 Color24;

typedef unsigned char uchar;

//-------------------------------------------------------------------------------

#ifndef min
# define min(a,b) ((a)<(b)?(a):(b))
#endif

#ifndef max
# define max(a,b) ((a)>(b)?(a):(b))
#endif

#define BIGFLOAT 1.0e30f

//-------------------------------------------------------------------------------

class Ray
{
public:
Point3 p, dir;

Ray() {}
Ray(const Point3 &_p, const Point3 &_dir) : p(_p), dir(_dir) {}
Ray(const Ray &r) : p(r.p), dir(r.dir) {}
void Normalize() { dir.Normalize(); }
};

//-------------------------------------------------------------------------------

class Box
{
public:
Point3 pmin, pmax;

// Constructors
Box() { Init(); }
Box(const Point3 &_pmin, const Point3 &_pmax) : pmin(_pmin), pmax(_pmax) {}
Box(float xmin, float ymin, float zmin, float xmax, float ymax, float zmax ) : pmin(xmin,ymin,zmin), pmax(xmax,ymax,zmax) {}
Box(const float *dim) : pmin(dim), pmax(&dim[3]) {}

// Initializes the box, such that there exists no point inside the box (i.e. it is empty).
void Init() { pmin.Set(BIGFLOAT,BIGFLOAT,BIGFLOAT); pmax.Set(-BIGFLOAT,-BIGFLOAT,-BIGFLOAT); }

// Returns true if the box is empty; otherwise, returns false.
bool IsEmpty() const { return pmin.x>pmax.x || pmin.y>pmax.y || pmin.z>pmax.z; }

// Returns one of the 8 corner point of the box in the following order:
// 0:(x_min,y_min,z_min), 1:(x_max,y_min,z_min)
// 2:(x_min,y_max,z_min), 3:(x_max,y_max,z_min)
// 4:(x_min,y_min,z_max), 5:(x_max,y_min,z_max)
// 6:(x_min,y_max,z_max), 7:(x_max,y_max,z_max)
Point3 Corner( int i ) const	// 8 corners of the box
{
Point3 p;
p.x = (i & 1) ? pmax.x : pmin.x;
p.y = (i & 2) ? pmax.y : pmin.y;
p.z = (i & 4) ? pmax.z : pmin.z;
return p;
}

// Enlarges the box such that it includes the given point p.
void operator += (const Point3 &p)
{
for ( int i=0; i<3; i++ ) {
if ( pmin[i] > p[i] ) pmin[i] = p[i];
if ( pmax[i] < p[i] ) pmax[i] = p[i];
}
}

// Enlarges the box such that it includes the given box b.
void operator += (const Box &b)
{
for ( int i=0; i<3; i++ ) {
if ( pmin[i] > b.pmin[i] ) pmin[i] = b.pmin[i];
if ( pmax[i] < b.pmax[i] ) pmax[i] = b.pmax[i];
}
}

// Returns true if the point is inside the box; otherwise, returns false.
bool IsInside(const Point3 &p) const { for ( int i=0; i<3; i++ ) if ( pmin[i] > p[i] || pmax[i] < p[i] ) return false; return true; }

// Returns true if the ray intersects with the box for any parameter that is smaller than t_max; otherwise, returns false.
bool IntersectRay(const Ray &r, float t_max) const;
};

//-------------------------------------------------------------------------------

inline float Halton(int index, int base)
{
float r = 0;
float f = 1.0f / (float)base;
for ( int i=index; i>0; i/=base ) {
r += f * (i%base);
f /= (float) base;
}
return r;
}

//-------------------------------------------------------------------------------

class Node;

#define HIT_NONE			0
#define HIT_FRONT			1
#define HIT_BACK			2
#define HIT_FRONT_AND_BACK	(HIT_FRONT|HIT_BACK)

struct HitInfo
{
float z;			// the distance from the ray center to the hit point
Point3 p;			// position of the hit point
Point3 N;			// surface normal at the hit point
Point3 uvw;			// texture coordinate at the hit point
Point3 duvw[2];		// derivatives of the texture coordinate
const Node *node;	// the object node that was hit
bool front;			// true if the ray hits the front side, false if the ray hits the back side
int mtlID;			// sub-material index

HitInfo() { Init(); }
void Init() { z=BIGFLOAT; node=NULL; front=true; uvw.Set(0.5f,0.5f,0.5f); duvw[0].Zero(); duvw[1].Zero(); mtlID=0; }
};

//-------------------------------------------------------------------------------

class ItemBase
{
private:
char *name;					// The name of the item

public:
ItemBase() : name(NULL) {}
virtual ~ItemBase() { if ( name ) delete [] name; }

const char* GetName() const { return name ? name : ""; }
void SetName(const char *newName)
{
if ( name ) delete [] name;
if ( newName ) {
int n = strlen(newName);
name = new char[n+1];
for ( int i=0; i<n; i++ ) name[i] = newName[i];
name[n] = '\0';
} else { name = NULL; }
}
};

template <class T> class ItemList : public std::vector<T*>
{
public:
virtual ~ItemList() { DeleteAll(); }
void DeleteAll() { int n=(int)this->size(); for ( int i=0; i<n; i++ ) if ( this->at(i) ) delete this->at(i); }
};

template <class T> class ItemFileList
{
public:
void Clear() { list.DeleteAll(); }
void Append( T* item, const char *name ) { list.push_back( new FileInfo(item,name) ); }
T* Find( const char *name ) const { int n=list.size(); for ( int i=0; i<n; i++ ) if ( list[i] && strcmp(name,list[i]->GetName())==0 ) return list[i]->GetObj(); return NULL; }

private:
class FileInfo : public ItemBase
{
private:
T *item;
public:
FileInfo() : item(NULL) {}
FileInfo(T *_item, const char *name) : item(_item) { SetName(name); }
~FileInfo() { Delete(); }
void Delete() { if (item) delete item; item=NULL; }
void SetObj(T *_item) { Delete(); item=_item; }
T* GetObj() { return item; }
};

ItemList<FileInfo> list;
};

//-------------------------------------------------------------------------------

class Transformation
{
private:
Matrix3 tm;						// Transformation matrix to the local space
Point3 pos;						// Translation part of the transformation matrix
mutable Matrix3 itm;			// Inverse of the transformation matrix (cached)
public:
Transformation() : pos(0,0,0) { tm.SetIdentity(); itm.SetIdentity(); }
const Matrix3& GetTransform() const { return tm; }
const Point3& GetPosition() const { return pos; }
const Matrix3&	GetInverseTransform() const { return itm; }

Point3 TransformTo( const Point3 &p ) const { return itm * (p - pos); }	// Transform to the local coordinate system
Point3 TransformFrom( const Point3 &p ) const { return tm*p + pos; }	// Transform from the local coordinate system

// Transforms a vector to the local coordinate system (same as multiplication with the inverse transpose of the transformation)
Point3 VectorTransformTo( const Point3 &dir ) const { return TransposeMult(tm,dir); }

// Transforms a vector from the local coordinate system (same as multiplication with the inverse transpose of the transformation)
Point3 VectorTransformFrom( const Point3 &dir ) const { return TransposeMult(itm,dir); }

void Translate(Point3 p) { pos+=p; }
void Rotate(Point3 axis, float degree) { Matrix3 m; m.SetRotation(axis,degree*(float)M_PI/180.0f); Transform(m); }
void Scale(float sx, float sy, float sz) { Matrix3 m; m.Zero(); m[0]=sx; m[4]=sy; m[8]=sz; Transform(m); }
void Transform(const Matrix3 &m) { tm=m*tm; pos=m*pos; tm.GetInverse(itm); }

void InitTransform() { pos.Zero(); tm.SetIdentity(); itm.SetIdentity(); }

private:
// Multiplies the given vector with the transpose of the given matrix
static Point3 TransposeMult( const Matrix3 &m, const Point3 &dir )
{
Point3 d;
d.x = m.GetColumn(0) % dir;
d.y = m.GetColumn(1) % dir;
d.z = m.GetColumn(2) % dir;
return d;
}
};

//-------------------------------------------------------------------------------

class Material;

// Base class for all object types
class Object
{
public:
virtual bool IntersectRay( const Ray &ray, HitInfo &hInfo, int hitSide=HIT_FRONT ) const=0;
virtual Box  GetBoundBox() const=0;
virtual void ViewportDisplay(const Material *mtl) const {}	// used for OpenGL display
};

typedef ItemFileList<Object> ObjFileList;

//-------------------------------------------------------------------------------

class Light : public ItemBase
{
public:
virtual Color	Illuminate(const Point3 &p, const Point3 &N) const=0;
virtual Point3	Direction (const Point3 &p) const=0;
virtual bool	IsAmbient () const { return false; }
virtual void	SetViewportLight(int lightID) const {}	// used for OpenGL display
};

class LightList : public ItemList<Light> {};

//-------------------------------------------------------------------------------

class Material : public ItemBase
{
public:
// The main method that handles the shading by calling all the lights in the list.
// ray: incoming ray,
// hInfo: hit information for the point that is being shaded, lights: the light list,
// bounceCount: permitted number of additional bounces for reflection and refraction.
virtual Color Shade(const Ray &ray, const HitInfo &hInfo, const LightList &lights, int bounceCount) const=0;

virtual void SetViewportMaterial(int subMtlID=0) const {}	// used for OpenGL display
};

class MaterialList : public ItemList<Material>
{
public:
Material* Find( const char *name ) { int n=size(); for ( int i=0; i<n; i++ ) if ( at(i) && strcmp(name,at(i)->GetName())==0 ) return at(i); return NULL; }
};

//-------------------------------------------------------------------------------

class Texture : public ItemBase
{
public:
// Evaluates the color at the given uvw location.
virtual Color Sample(const Point3 &uvw) const=0;

// Evaluates the color around the given uvw location using the derivatives duvw
// by calling the Sample function multiple times.
virtual Color Sample(const Point3 &uvw, const Point3 duvw[2], bool elliptic=true) const
{
Color c = Sample(uvw);
if ( duvw[0].LengthSquared() + duvw[1].LengthSquared() == 0 ) return c;
for ( int i=1; i<TEXTURE_SAMPLE_COUNT; i++ ) {
float x = Halton(i,2);
float y = Halton(i,3);
if ( elliptic ) {
float r = sqrtf(x)*0.5f;
x = r*sinf(y*(float)M_PI*2);
y = r*cosf(y*(float)M_PI*2);
} else {
if ( x > 0.5f ) x-=1;
if ( y > 0.5f ) y-=1;
}
c += Sample( uvw + x*duvw[0] + y*duvw[1] );
}
return c / float(TEXTURE_SAMPLE_COUNT);
}

virtual bool SetViewportTexture() const { return false; }	// used for OpenGL display

protected:

// Clamps the uvw values for tiling textures, such that all values fall between 0 and 1.
static Point3 TileClamp(const Point3 &uvw)
{
Point3 u;
u.x = uvw.x - (int) uvw.x;
u.y = uvw.y - (int) uvw.y;
u.z = uvw.z - (int) uvw.z;
if ( u.x < 0 ) u.x += 1;
if ( u.y < 0 ) u.y += 1;
if ( u.z < 0 ) u.z += 1;
return u;
}
};

typedef ItemFileList<Texture> TextureList;

//-------------------------------------------------------------------------------

// This class handles textures with texture transformations.
// The uvw values passed to the Sample methods are transformed
// using the texture transformation.
class TextureMap : public Transformation
{
public:
TextureMap() : texture(NULL) {}
TextureMap(Texture *tex) : texture(tex) {}
void SetTexture(Texture *tex) { texture = tex; }

virtual Color Sample(const Point3 &uvw) const { return texture ? texture->Sample(TransformTo(uvw)) : Color(0,0,0); }
virtual Color Sample(const Point3 &uvw, const Point3 duvw[2], bool elliptic=true) const
{
if ( texture == NULL ) return Color(0,0,0);
Point3 u = TransformTo(uvw);
Point3 d[2];
d[0] = TransformTo(duvw[0]+uvw)-u;
d[1] = TransformTo(duvw[1]+uvw)-u;
return texture->Sample(u,d,elliptic);
}

bool SetViewportTexture() const { if ( texture ) return texture->SetViewportTexture(); return false; }	// used for OpenGL display

private:
Texture *texture;
};

//-------------------------------------------------------------------------------

// This class keeps a TextureMap and a color. This is useful for keeping material
// color parameters that can also be textures. If no texture is specified, it
// automatically uses the color value. Otherwise, the texture value is multiplied
// by the color value.
class TexturedColor
{
private:
Color color;
TextureMap *map;
public:
TexturedColor() : color(0,0,0), map(NULL) {}
TexturedColor(float r, float g, float b) : color(r,g,b), map(NULL) {}
virtual ~TexturedColor() { if ( map ) delete map; }

void SetColor(const Color &c) { color=c; }
void SetTexture(TextureMap *m) { if ( map ) delete map; map=m; }

Color GetColor() const { return color; }
const TextureMap* GetTexture() const { return map; }

Color Sample(const Point3 &uvw) const { return ( map ) ? color*map->Sample(uvw) : color; }
Color Sample(const Point3 &uvw, const Point3 duvw[2], bool elliptic=true) const { return ( map ) ? color*map->Sample(uvw,duvw,elliptic) : color; }

// Returns the color value at the given direction for environment mapping.
Color SampleEnvironment(const Point3 &dir) const
{
float z = asinf(-dir.z)/float(M_PI)+0.5f;
float x = dir.x / (fabs(dir.x)+fabs(dir.y));
float y = dir.y / (fabs(dir.x)+fabs(dir.y));
return Sample( Point3(0.5f,0.5f,0.0f) + z*(x*Point3(0.5f,0.5f,0) + y*Point3(-0.5f,0.5f,0)) );
}

};

//-------------------------------------------------------------------------------

class Node : public ItemBase, public Transformation
{
private:
Node **child;				// Child nodes
int numChild;				// The number of child nodes
Object *obj;				// Object reference (merely points to the object, but does not own the object, so it doesn't get deleted automatically)
Material *mtl;				// Material used for shading the object
Box childBoundBox;			// Bounding box of the child nodes, which does not include the object of this node, but includes the objects of the child nodes
public:
Node() : child(NULL), numChild(0), obj(NULL), mtl(NULL) {}
virtual ~Node() { DeleteAllChildNodes(); }

void Init() { DeleteAllChildNodes(); obj=NULL; mtl=NULL; childBoundBox.Init(); SetName(NULL); InitTransform(); } // Initialize the node deleting all child nodes

// Hierarchy management
int	 GetNumChild() const { return numChild; }
void SetNumChild(int n, int keepOld=false)
{
if ( n < 0 ) n=0;	// just to be sure
Node **nc = NULL;	// new child pointer
if ( n > 0 ) nc = new Node*[n];
for ( int i=0; i<n; i++ ) nc[i] = NULL;
if ( keepOld ) {
int sn = min(n,numChild);
for ( int i=0; i<sn; i++ ) nc[i] = child[i];
}
if ( child ) delete [] child;
child = nc;
numChild = n;
}
const Node*	GetChild(int i) const		{ return child[i]; }
Node*		GetChild(int i)				{ return child[i]; }
void		SetChild(int i, Node *node)	{ child[i]=node; }
void		AppendChild(Node *node)		{ SetNumChild(numChild+1,true); SetChild(numChild-1,node); }
void		RemoveChild(int i)			{ for ( int j=i; j<numChild-1; j++) child[j]=child[j+1]; SetNumChild(numChild-1); }
void		DeleteAllChildNodes()		{ for ( int i=0; i<numChild; i++ ) { child[i]->DeleteAllChildNodes(); delete child[i]; } SetNumChild(0); }

// Bounding Box
const Box& ComputeChildBoundBox()
{
childBoundBox.Init();
for ( int i=0; i<numChild; i++ ) {
Box childBox = child[i]->ComputeChildBoundBox();
Object *cobj = child[i]->GetNodeObj();
if ( cobj ) childBox += cobj->GetBoundBox();
if ( ! childBox.IsEmpty() ) {
// transform the box from child coordinates
for ( int j=0; j<8; j++ ) childBoundBox += child[i]->TransformFrom( childBox.Corner(j) );
}
}
return childBoundBox;
}
const Box& GetChildBoundBox() const { return childBoundBox; }

// Object management
const Object*	GetNodeObj() const { return obj; }
Object*			GetNodeObj() { return obj; }
void			SetNodeObj(Object *object) { obj=object; }

// Material management
const Material* GetMaterial() const { return mtl; }
void			SetMaterial(Material *material) { mtl=material; }

// Transformations
Ray ToNodeCoords( const Ray &ray ) const
{
Ray r;
r.p   = TransformTo(ray.p);
r.dir = TransformTo(ray.p + ray.dir) - r.p;
return r;
}
void FromNodeCoords( HitInfo &hInfo ) const
{
hInfo.p = TransformFrom(hInfo.p);
hInfo.N = VectorTransformFrom(hInfo.N).GetNormalized();
}
};

//-------------------------------------------------------------------------------

class Camera
{
public:
Point3 pos, dir, up;
float fov;
int imgWidth, imgHeight;

void Init()
{
pos.Set(0,0,0);
dir.Set(0,0,-1);
up.Set(0,1,0);
fov = 40;
imgWidth = 200;
imgHeight = 150;
}
};

//-------------------------------------------------------------------------------

class RenderImage
{
private:
Color24	*img;
float	*zbuffer;
uchar	*zbufferImg;
uchar	*sampleCount;
uchar	*sampleCountImg;
int		width, height;
std::atomic<int> numRenderedPixels;
public:
RenderImage() : img(NULL), zbuffer(NULL), zbufferImg(NULL), sampleCount(NULL), sampleCountImg(NULL), width(0), height(0), numRenderedPixels(0) {}
void Init(int w, int h)
{
width=w;
height=h;
if (img) delete [] img;
img = new Color24[width*height];
if (zbuffer) delete [] zbuffer;
zbuffer = new float[width*height];
if (zbufferImg) delete [] zbufferImg;
zbufferImg = NULL;
if ( sampleCount ) delete [] sampleCount;
sampleCount = new uchar[width*height];
if ( sampleCountImg ) delete [] sampleCountImg;
sampleCountImg = NULL;
ResetNumRenderedPixels();
}

int			GetWidth() const	{ return width; }
int			GetHeight() const	{ return height; }
Color24*	GetPixels()			{ return img; }
float*		GetZBuffer()		{ return zbuffer; }
uchar*		GetZBufferImage()	{ return zbufferImg; }
uchar*		GetSampleCount()	{ return sampleCount; }
uchar*		GetSampleCountImage(){ return sampleCountImg; }

void	ResetNumRenderedPixels()		{ numRenderedPixels=0; }
int		GetNumRenderedPixels() const	{ return numRenderedPixels; }
void	IncrementNumRenderPixel(int n)	{ numRenderedPixels+=n; }
bool	IsRenderDone() const			{ return numRenderedPixels >= width*height; }

void	ComputeZBufferImage()
{
int size = width * height;
if (zbufferImg) delete [] zbufferImg;
zbufferImg = new uchar[size];

float zmin=BIGFLOAT, zmax=0;
for ( int i=0; i<size; i++ ) {
if ( zbuffer[i] == BIGFLOAT ) continue;
if ( zmin > zbuffer[i] ) zmin = zbuffer[i];
if ( zmax < zbuffer[i] ) zmax = zbuffer[i];
}
for ( int i=0; i<size; i++ ) {
if ( zbuffer[i] == BIGFLOAT ) zbufferImg[i] = 0;
else {
float f = (zmax-zbuffer[i])/(zmax-zmin);
int c = int(f * 255);
if ( c < 0 ) c = 0;
if ( c > 255 ) c = 255;
zbufferImg[i] = c;
}
}
}

int ComputeSampleCountImage()
{
int size = width * height;
if (sampleCountImg) delete [] sampleCountImg;
sampleCountImg = new uchar[size];

uchar smin=255, smax=0;
for ( int i=0; i<size; i++ ) {
if ( smin > sampleCount[i] ) smin = sampleCount[i];
if ( smax < sampleCount[i] ) smax = sampleCount[i];
}
if ( smax == smin ) {
for ( int i=0; i<size; i++ ) sampleCountImg[i] = 0;
} else {
for ( int i=0; i<size; i++ ) {
int c = (255*(sampleCount[i]-smin))/(smax-smin);
if ( c < 0 ) c = 0;
if ( c > 255 ) c = 255;
sampleCountImg[i] = c;
}
}
return smax;
}

bool SaveImage (const char *filename) const { return SavePNG(filename,&img[0].r,3); }
bool SaveZImage(const char *filename) const { return SavePNG(filename,zbufferImg,1); }
bool SaveSampleCountImage(const char *filename) const { return SavePNG(filename,sampleCountImg,1); }

private:
bool SavePNG(const char *filename, uchar *data, int compCount) const
{
LodePNGColorType colortype;
switch( compCount ) {
case 1: colortype = LCT_GREY; break;
case 3: colortype = LCT_RGB;  break;
default: return false;
}
unsigned int error = lodepng::encode(filename,data,width,height,colortype,8);
return error == 0;
}
};

//-------------------------------------------------------------------------------

#endif
```